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# Circuits

## What is Ratsnest in Eagle PCB Layout?

Ratsnest is a tool or command in Eagle PCB layout that optimizes unrouted wires (or air wires) to the shortest path. It is also helpful in creating a ground plane through the Polygon tool.

## Capacitive Impedance | Circuit Theory

Capacitive impedance is the ratio of phasor voltage to phasor current in a capacitor. It also means the opposition of a capacitor to an alternating current. Impedance of a capacitor is dependent on the frequency of the voltage or current across it.

## Light Dimmer Circuit with Arduino

Light dimmer circuit projects are a good way to learn about thyristors. Thyristors, which include TRIAC, SCR, and Shockley diodes, are four-layer semiconductors that find many applications in AC power control. This post will show you how to create a light dimmer circuit with a TRIAC. As an additional feature,  …

## Analog to Digital Conversion Calculator

Analog to Digital Conversion Overview Microcontrollers are essentially computers. And like computers, they only understand two numbers: a 1 and a 0. So when a microcontoller needs to read a quantity with varying numbers in a period of time (a.k.a. analog), an analog-to-digital conversion is necessary. An ADC (analog-to-digital) converter …

## Voltage Divider Calculator

Introduction to Voltage Dividers Resistors are in series when the same current flows through them. Consequently, by Ohm’s Law, the total voltage in a circuit of series resistors is the sum of the individual drops on the resistors. Another way of saying this is that each resistor contributes to the …

## CD4013 Dual D Type Flip Flop | Datasheet

The CD4013 is an integrated circuit consisting of two D-type flip-flops. It has a number of applications in digital circuits but is primarily for latching data.

## WeMos D1 Mini Schematic Diagram

The schematic diagram for the ESP8266 WeMos D1 Mini board: Some notes on the schematic:

## Using Single-Supply Op-Amps for Microcontroller Projects

An application note on how to implement an embedded system circuit with single-supply operational amplifiers.